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JS - JavaScript

Historique HTML :

  • 2003-05-06 : The fifth public Working Draft of XHTML 2.0
  • 2002-08-05 : The first public Working Draft of XHTML 2.0
  • 2000-12-19 : XHTML Basic Recommendation
    W3C Recommendation 19 December 2000
  • 1999-12-24 : HTML 4.01 Specification
  • 1998-04-24 : HTML 4.0 - Second released
  • 1997-1998 : XHTML 1.0
    The XHTML 1.0 is the result of reformulating HTML 4 in XML.
    XHTML 1.0 is the first major change to HTML since HTML 4.0 was released in 1997. It brings the rigor of XML to Web pages and is the keystone in W3C's work to create standards that provide richer Web pages on an ever increasing range of browser platforms including cell phones, televisions, cars, wallet sized wireless communicators, kiosks, and desktops.
  • 1997-12-18 : HTML 4.0 - First released
  • 1997-01-14 : HTML 3.2
    HTML 3.2 added widely-deployed features such as tables, applets, text-flow around images, superscripts and subscripts, while providing backwards compatibility with the existing HTML 2.0 Standard.
    The efforts of the World Wide Web Consortium's HTML Working Group to codify common practice in 1996 resulted in HTML 3.2
  • 1995-09 : HTML 3.0
    HTML 3.0 proposed much richer versions of HTML. Despite never receiving consensus in standards discussions, these drafts led to the adoption of a range of new features.
  • 1994 : HTML 2.0
    HTML 2.0 (RFC 1866) was developed by the IETF's HTML Working Group, which closed in 1996. It set the standard for core HTML features based upon current practice in 1994.
  • 1993-03 : MOSAIC - le premier navigateur internet
    Le NCSA lance MOSAIC, le premier navigateur internet (protocole http, langage html), le web décolle...
  • 1987 : Mis en place en 1987 par le CERN
    Il permet de faire de l'informatique documentaire au moyen d'un langage normalisé simplifié (issu de SGML) de description de mise en page de documents informatiques.


HTML is the lingua franca for publishing hypertext on the World Wide Web. It is a non-proprietary format based upon SGML, and can be created and processed by a wide range of tools, from simple plain text editors - you type it in from scratch- to sophisticated WYSIWYG authoring tools. HTML uses tags such as <h1> and </h1> to structure text into headings, paragraphs, lists, hypertext links etc.
The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML™) is a family of current and future document types and modules that reproduce, subset, and extend HTML, reformulated in XML. XHTML Family document types are all XML-based, and ultimately are designed to work in conjunction with XML-based user agents. XHTML is the successor of HTML, and a series of specifications has been developed for XHTML.

Source : W3C

Three "flavors" of XHTML 1.0

XHTML 1.0 is specified in three "flavors". You specify which of these variants you are using by inserting a line at the beginning of the document. For example, the HTML for this document starts with a line which says that it is using XHTML 1.0 Strict. Thus, if you want to validate the document, the tool used knows which variant you are using. Each variant has its own DTD - Document Type Definition - which sets out the rules and regulations for using HTML in a succinct and definitive manner.
  • XHTML 1.0 Strict : Use this when you want really clean structural mark-up, free of any markup associated with layout. Use this together with W3C's Cascading Style Sheet language (CSS) to get the font, color, and layout effects you want.
  • XHTML 1.0 Transitional : Many people writing Web pages for the general public to access might want to use this flavor of XHTML 1.0. The idea is to take advantage of XHTML features including style sheets but nonetheless to make small adjustments to your markup for the benefit of those viewing your pages with older browsers which can't understand style sheets. These include using the body element with bgcolor, text and link attributes.
  • XHTML 1.0 Frameset : Use this when you want to use Frames to partition the browser window into two or more frames.

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML Basic 1.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-basic/xhtml-basic10.dtd">
Source : W3C

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